To figure out if ecologically succesful beetles have different fungal associated than less usccesful native ones.
Two approaches (=papers): Broad Sample of many species from many localities using simple culturing, and a Deep Sample targeting just a few species from a few localities, but environmental sequencing using SSU amplification and 454 sequencing.
We also need to do a test isolation from the gut, to see if other interesting fungal species appear!
Localities: MA, NC, FL, hopefully MS or TX
Targeted species, Should be common and widespread.
|Xyleborus ferrugineus||native, mostly conifers|
|Dendroctonus frontalis||native, conifers|
|Xyleborinus saxeseni||old time invasive, possibly native|
1) collect targeted species, either in logs and rear out, or directly from the logs in the field, or from traps. Trapping likely more efficient in the spring. Targetting three collections of each species at each locality, at least two individuals of each species, ideally from diferent host species. The best would be to get conspecifics from both conifers as well as angiosperms. If there is any host-dependent variatioin in the symbiont, it would be there. Good species for that are X. ferrugineus, X. affinis, and X. saxeseni – frequently attacking any kind of hosts.
2) extract fungi from a) mycangium, b) the gut and c) surface-wash of the beetle.
3) save the beetle voucher for future genotyping (congruence between beetle relatedness and fungus community similarity)
(FL locality key: Palatka 1 – Palatka, FL; Palatka 2 – Savannah (pine); Welaka 1 – Myrtle B.; Welaka 2 – Lumber R.)
Up to five beetles, representatives from different localities and hosts, or important species even if samples are limited, careful isolation from mycangia, and sequencing SSU library with 454.
|Xyleborus ferrugineus||native, any host, Norris did experiments on it in the 60s|
|Xyleborus affinis||native, closely related to ferrugineus – which one is better?|
|Dendroctonus frontalis||native, conifers, SE USA only, but politically super important, and lots of work done on it|
|Xyleborus glabratus||exotic, limited distribution, but super important right now|
|Xylosandrus germanus||exotic pest, related to crassiusculus – good comparison, Northern species – role of climate|